Suggested citation: Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., Patrick, M. E., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2023). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2022: Secondary School Students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan. Available at

Note: Level of significance: *=p<.05, **=p<.01, ***=p<.001.
"." indicates data is not available.
"‡" indicates that the question changed the following year.
"§" indicates insufficient data for that year.